This has enabled me to produce the following cropped images.
Although the above photo already features on this site, a much better resolution of it has become available today courtesy of Isabel Tooze, daughter of the former Heddon historian, George Clark.
This has enabled me to produce the following cropped images.
This would make a good Past & Present but I would need an aeroplane or at least a drone to take my own present photo. Below is an image from a similar viewpoint generated by Google Earth.
For those who understand such things, below is a Google Earth (kmz) file which you can download to your PC and double click to open the view at the same location.
I've been trying out some new software from my local archaeology group that makes 3D models from a set of digital photos.
Below is my trial of the west end of Heddon's preserved section of Hadrian's Wall.
It is for those who are not able to visit it (or sit on it, as I do from time to time). Click the big arrow to load the model, use the controls to alter rendering and the computer mouse to rotate (left-button and drag), pan (right button and drag) and zoom (wheel or ctrl-drag). For the truely immersive experience switch on full-screen mode!
It's just like being there yourself.
Shown here is a short section of Hadrian’s Wall at the west end of a length of preserved Wall about 255m long, consolidated and in the care of English Heritage, just east of Heddon on the Wall village. This represents a part of the planned ‘broad wall’; further west the structure was reduced in thickness to save time and resources.
The broad wall at Heddon is between 2.8m and 3m wide and up to 1.7m (7 courses) high. The rubble core was originally set in puddled clay, but was reset in mortar to preserve the section when it was consolidated. The first 12m at the west end has only the outer face exposed.
At the west end (NZ 13622 66942) a circular kiln was built into the wall in medieval times, probably to dry corn. It measures 1.9 m in diameter, has a paved floor, and the surrounding wall has a maximum height of 0.7 m (3 courses). The flue is in the south-west arc and is 1.4 m wide.
For those missing a visit to St Andrew's Churchyard, please see the 3D model below.
A flat-topped, table- or chest-tomb from the late eighteenth century, located in the graveyard close to the west end of St Andrew’s Church, Heddon on the Wall, UK. There are inscriptions on the top and on the two end slabs and on the south-facing side of a long slab concealed beneath, but these are not well resolved in the 3D model and largely captured by the texture.
The inscriptions are transcribed on this site under number  where there are also some standard, 2D photos.
If you are more interested in prehistoric rock art, there is another model here.
A couple of old photos kindly copied from Philip Sanderson of his father William Ward Sanderson. Some of the information below is taken from a previous blog after a talk to our Society by Philip entitled 'The House that Fell over the Cliff' in 2011.
William Ward Sanderson (1874-1963) was born at Dale House Farm near Whitby. He became interested in agricultural engineering and the pioneering use of steam engines for ploughing and threshing. After studying at Wye College, he had various jobs servicing and selling farm implements throughout the country and, for three years, in South Africa.
In 1927, William moved back to the north-east working for the Northern Agricultural Supply Company in Newcastle. He rented East Town Farm in Heddon on the Wall which was owned at the time by James Hedley of Bays Leap Farm. The family lived in the farmhouse and farmed successfully on the fields here, milking cows in a parlour (now part of Tulip's yard), cutting hay on the site of the Roman Wall and running a local shop selling cigarettes and confectionery.
William Sanderson served for many years on the Parish Council, including a stint as Chairman in 1949.
William Ward Sanderson, agricultural engineer and pioneer, died on 13th May 1963 at Ponteland, to where he had retired when East Town farm was sold for the building of the Vallum Estate in the 1950s.
William Harle was station-master at Heddon on the Wall Railway Station between 1898 and 1906. It has been said that he planted 13 trees at the station, one for each of his children. As pointed out on Disused Stations a line of trees extends east of the platform buildings on a photograph from 1910 shown below.
The line of trees is also visible in historical aerial imagery for 1945 on Google Earth. The railway line runs from left to right across the photo. The Newcastle platform lies east of the level crossing which provided access to the Station-master's House and fields to the south. The platform was on the north side and I can count 14 or 15 trees extending to the east on the extract below. The station was staggered and the platform for travellers to Wylam was just west of the level crossing, close to the Station-master's House.
There is a line of mature sycamore trees along the boundary in this location today but now many more trees have grown up both west and east along the line of the Wylam Waggonway, and an exact count is not easy. The Station-master's House is still in use as the farmhouse of Heddon Haughs Farm, located at the bottom of Station Road, just to the north of the station, although the building has been much extended and altered
A newspaper clipping shown below describes how 14 trees were planted in commemoration of his 14 children, to mark the Coronation of King Edward VII.
The 1901 Census records William Harle (aged 46), wife Margaret (44), and 8 children: Ethel May (17), Isabella (15), Margaret (13), Lillian (10), William (8), Mabel (5), Sidney (2) and Ernest Edward (0). The Census fails to record the number of rooms in the Station Masters House but lodging with them at the time was a William W Watson (23), Railway Signalman (born in Newcastle).
I was pleased to have recently received more information about William Harle and his family from his great grandson, Brian Harle, who has kindly let me reproduce it here.
5b2 William (1854-1913)
The previous section on his father George (6b3) indicates the poor living conditions to which this family had been reduced since the break up of Corridge. His birth certificate shows he was born at New Cassop, which lies a few miles south east of Durham City.
The family had moved to Trimdon by 1859 when his sister Mary was born and there was a church school here so he would probably have some education, the School Board Act was not introduced until 1870. The 1871 census shows him working as a stoker at Usworth Colliery at the age of 16 years. He must have obtained work on The North Eastern Railway soon after this as his marriage certificate dated 1875 gives his occupation as Block Instructor.
By the last quarter of the 19th century the laying of railway lines all over the country was almost completed and travelling by rail was so well established that a large number of trains was using each line and several accidents were occurring, According to W W Tomlinson's book "The North Eastern Railway" there had been several of these accidents on the NER in the 1860's due to incorrect signalling and experiments were being carried out with a system of block signalling designed to prevent any train entering a section of the railway which already has a train on it. As a result of serious accidents at Thirsk in 1869 and at Brockley Whins near Boldon, in 1870 it was decided in May 1871 to apply the block system to the whole of the NER system and "To arrange for the establishment of classes in which pointsmen, signalmen and other servants of the company might be instructed and trained to perform efficiently the duties required of them,"
It is assumed that the NER advertised for men to be trained as instructors and William was one those selected and hence is designated a 'Block Instructor' on his marriage certificate.
He and his bride Margaret Ann Mariner lived close together as the 1871 census shows their families adjacent to each other:-
At 57 Old Engine
Matthew Mariner Head 39 Coal Miner Birtley
Isabella Mariner Wife 33 Washington
Margaret Ann Mariner Daughter 14 Washington Thomas Mariner Son 9 Scholar Washington Jonas Mariner Son 5 Washington
Robert Mariner Son 3 Washington
At 58 Coxons Row, Usworth
George Harle Head 45 Labourer Witton Gilbert
Isabella Harle Wife 38 Pelton
Robert Harle Son 18 Labourer Cassop
William Harle Son 16 Stoker Cassop
Mary Harle Daughter 12 Trimdon
The first child was born four months after their marriage, so the addresses on the certificate are probably false, and was used to avoid having the banns read at the local church, few neighbours at Washington would hear any details of weddings at North Shields in those days.
It will be seen that Margaret's father was a labourer but it is known from the previous census that he had been a coal miner and was born at Birtley, her mother was Isabella and some idea of Margaret's family can be obtained from these extracts from a letter from Mabel Topping (nee Harle) c1971.
"I'm afraid I do not know much about my father really. I was only a small child, about seven when he remarried. I cannot remember any of his people coming to stay or even hearing of them. He had one sister, Mrs Hall who I met once she lived at Low Fell if I remember rightly. Both my mother and father came from the same village, Usworth near Washington, My mother Margaret Ann Mariner had three brothers Jonas, Thomas and William and a sister Mrs Rutherford who lived in Jesmond. I knew uncles Thomas and William's families very well, they were very good to me, they all lived around Washington and their families live there today. My maternal grandmother, when I knew her was Mrs Pringle having remarried. Uncle Jonas was manager of a working men’s club in Usworth or thereabout. I only met him in 1936."
The first child mentioned above was Mary Alice born at Brandy Row Washington on the 7 December 1875 and the certificate gives William's occupation as signalman, it was quite common for women to go home to mother to have the first child so William and Margaret may have had a home away from Brandy Row perhaps a railway house.
By the February of 1881 the family had moved to Harvey Street in Heaton, Newcastle Upon Tyne, William is still a signalman but will have been upgraded and is probably in one of the larger signal boxes on the main London - Edinburgh line.
They lived in Harvey Street until 1889 when they moved to Tynemouth Road not far away. It can be assumed that William had a few promotions during the ten years they lived at Tynemouth Road as his next move was when he was appointed stationmaster at Heddon on the Wall, quite an important position in those times when the railways were the most important means of transport. It must have been a great blessing to Margaret to have a large detached railway house after living in a small terrace house, since by this time their family had grown to ten, seven girls and three boys, the oldest only fourteen years of age. The railway is long since gone but the station house is still occupied and was only recently modernised.
Margaret had one more child, Ernest Edward in 1901, the last to have a tree planted in his name as shown in a cutting from the Hexham Courant. (The original dated 19 August 1903). She did not have the pleasure of living in the large house for very long as she developed pneumonia in the first days of 1903 and died of heart failure on the 13th January. They had fourteen children in the twenty years of their marriage, three had died and the oldest two were married leaving William with nine still to be looked after.
From Mabel's letter (op cit) it would seem that Margaret's family were very helpful with the younger ones and may have had some of them to stay at Usworth. As a stationmaster William may have had domestic staff but even so the long-term solution to his problem would be to employ a nanny. It is thought that Mary Henderson was chosen for this position but whether this is true or not William was definitely married to her before the year was out.
Mary Annie Henderson was the daughter of Luke and Jane and was baptised at Whittingham Parish Church, Northumberland, Octavia Annie, it is not surprising that she changed the first name to Mary when she was a few years older. Luke's first wife Margaret was a local girl and they were married at Whittingham but his second marriage to Mary's mother Jane took place elsewhere and the certificate has not yet been found. Mary's address on the certificate is Glanton, which is close to and in the parish of Whittingham and could be where her mother was living so if her brother and sisters were still in the area her family would be well represented at her wedding. Mary was fifteen years of age when her father died so she should have remembered his name and occupation, which for some reason are omitted from the marriage certificate.
Not long after his second marriage William added a codicil to his will omitting his daughter Lilian out of any benefit. She left home and went to live with her mother's family, whether she left of her own free will or was forced to leave is not known but all the older children also left home as soon as it was conveniently possible.
Matthew immediately went to live with his sister Kate, married and living in the west end of Newcastle, and Margaretta left home and went into service at Ebchester, Alice and probably Ethel were already married. Isabella if not married at this time was married soon after but she kept in touch with the family as a postcard dated April 1908 confirms. The postcard is from William who is 15 years old and still at home, to Barbara Watson a sister of Isabella's husband.
The family moved to Appleby c1906 and William was stationmaster here until 1913, when he retired due to ill health and moved back to Newcastle. He died at Bolingbroke Street, Heaton in May of the same year and their last child was born some months later. Mary and the family continued to live in Heaton until about 1925 when they moved to a farm at Blencarn, at the foot of Cross Fell in Cumbria, Mary died at Barningham in Yorkshire in February 1947 at the age of 72 years.
William and his two wives had 18 children 4a1 to 4a18.
In 1918, Sir James Knott bought property in Heddon village from the trustees of the Clayton family. The death of his two sons in the First World War ended his business ambitions and in 1924, he decided to live abroad and went to the island of Jersey. Samares Manor, become the Knott’s main home, Close House their second (to 1929), and the motor yacht, Princess, their third.
Sir James’ sale of property in Heddon took place on 11th March 1924 by auction under Mr Robert Donkin at the County Hotel in Newcastle. It comprised 32 lots, including East Town Farm, Clayton Terrace, Blue Row, Garden House, W.A. Waugh’s house and shop, and adjoining houses on Hexham Road, Blacksmith’s shop (later Co-op store), and Three Tuns Inn.
Nathaniel George Clayton (1754-1832) was Town Clerk of Newcastle from 1785 to 1822, and bought the estate of Chesters from the Errington family. His son, John Clayton (1792-1890), followed him as Town Clerk (1822 to 1867), inherited Chesters, and pursued his antiquarian interests. Chesters estate was eventually sold out of the family in 1928.
On 31st July 1918, the Claytons sold by auction all of their property in Heddon including Bay’s Leap Farm, said by the auctioneer to be ‘one of the most desirable not only in the county of Northumberland, but in the whole of the North of England.’ Nathaniel Clayton had bought it from the sixth Earl of Carlisle in 1812.
Heddon Banks and Bay’s Leap farms were sold to Adam and James Hedley, although most of the village property, including East Town Farm south of the Throckley Road, was bought by Sir James Knott.
At the sale in 1924, Mr Donkin explained that the properties ‘were purchased by Sir James Knott in 1918, his idea being to promote a model village. Events had taken place which had prevented this, although Sir James had done a great deal for the different properties since he became the owner. In this sale Sir James Knott was anxious that his tenants should have every consideration, as they had had during the time in which he had held the properties. As showing the consideration Sir James Knott had for the tenants since he became the owner, not one of the rents had been increased from the original rents in 1918.’
In conducting the sale, Mr Donkin carried out the wishes of Sir James, giving the tenants the opportunity to purchase, even when others were anxious to bid higher.
Lot 1 was East Town Farm, on the site of the Roman Wall, including 38 acres of old grass land. Sir James Knott paid £3000 for the farm in 1918. It was sold for £2,800 to Messrs. Hedley Brothers, Bay's Leap. The small field containing Hadrian’s Wall was retained, and later gifted by Sir James to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne.
Many of the properties in Clayton Terrace and Blue Row were purchased by the tenants, as directed. Details of the sale show that No.5 Clayton Terrace was a formerly rented by Northumberland County Police and the single-storey cottages, No.7 and 8 Blue Row, by the Throckley Colliery Company. These were later demolished to provide access to the Vallum estate.
Church House backing on to St Andrew’s graveyard, let at rental of £9 to Mr J Malthouse was sold for £300 to the tenant, with access reserved to the unenclosed hearse house. Garden House, let to Mr W C Jordan at rental of £15, was sold to Mr G F Bell for £800 for an unnamed client. The auctioneer announced that Lot 23, the Three Tuns Inn, had, on the instructions of Sir James Knott, been sold to Mr R Thompson, the present tenant. The adjoining Blacksmith’s shop (which later became the Co-op store), let to Mr George Armitage at £20 a year, was withdrawn at £340.
The tenant of West Cottage was Mary Ann Waugh who operated a shop, Post Office and the Roman Wall Refreshment Rooms from the premises. She had moved here from a small shop she ran for tourists on the Military Road from a window of her small cottage in Haddock’s Hole. She bought West Cottage at the sale for £300. The Post Office was in operation here until the death of Willie Waugh in 1968.
Other cottages on the Hexham Road were also sold and in order to provide recreational facilities for the miners and their families living in Heddon, the field between the Post Office and the Common was bought for the sum of £220 to Mr R F J Modlin, acting on behalf of the Throckley Miners' Welfare Committee.
Ownership of The Reading Room (Old Library) built by Messrs. Hunter between 1880 and 1882, as a gift to the village by Mr Richard Clayton of Wylam Hall, was transferred to a group of 13 village trustees on 15th October 1924.
A completion of their business in Heddon occurred in November 1925 when Major G E Wilkinson, on behalf of Sir James and Lady Knott, handed over the keys and deeds for the Memorial Park.
Lady Knott died aboard the Princess at Cannes in 1929. In 1932, Sir James (77) married Elizabeth Gaunlett (25) in Monte Carlo. He died on 8th June 1934.
The sale in 1924 was the end of his plan to develop Heddon as a model village and his ‘tenants preferred’ policy was a generous gift to the village. If events had been different and his sons and business had survived the First War, perhaps Sir James would have bought Close House and remained Heddon’s Lord of the Manor.
I was very pleased to receive today the old postcard below of Waugh's Refreshment Rooms, Post Office & Shop, Hexham Road, Heddon on the Wall from email correspondent Lawrence Scott.
I will add some further information here later but a modern photo of the property (from a similar angle) is shown below.
Mary Ann Waugh is listed as a Grocer in Heddon on the Wall in 1914. At that time, the Post Office was operated by John Wright from Jubilee House on Towne Gate.
In 1925 she is listed as operating both as Grocer and Post Office.
Winifred Spoor tells us:
The main shop in Heddon was run by Mrs Waugh. Her first shop was in Haddock's Hole, in the middle house. On the Military Road side of that house was a pantry window and on the lintel above the window in red lettering was the word, 'Lemonade'. After school time there would be a member of the family perched in the pantry window to sell lemonade and sweets to passing cyclists. Mrs Waugh moved to her new shop at the Old Post Office, further west on the opposite side of the road, which she bought from the Sir James Knott estate in 1924.
The Post Office was in operation here until the death of Willie Waugh in 1968.
The gravestone in St Andrew's Churchyard (36) reads:
36) In loving memory of John Waugh died Nov 1909 aged 50 years. Also Mary Ann wife of the above died 1 May 1955 aged 86 years. Also Grace Ivy daughter of the above died June 1903 aged 1 year. Also John son of the above accidentally killed in British Columbia April 1927 aged 30 yrs. Also Isabella Knott sister of the above John Waugh (senior) died at Toronto Canada June 1948 aged 78 years. Also William Andrew Waugh son of the above died 17th Oct 1968.
In 1934, Rhoda Waugh, sister of the then postmaster, William Waugh, married John Lyall Aitchison also from Heddon, and later moved to Canada where their son, Colin, still resides.
Mark R. Parker - memories of Heddon
Mr Waugh who when we first arrived in the village ran the Post Office. This was a small shop that sold everything from groceries to vegetables and bread. His sister Violet worked as a post lady and delivered our mail through all weathers. It was not until she retired that I was aware of the size of her round. Not only did it cover the older part of the village along with the Military Road and Houghton but also all the outlying farms towards Ponteland. I remember that the Newcastle Journal ran an article when she retired and they calculated she had walked some 1/4 million miles delivering the mail. No doubt today it is done by a man-in-a-van in half the time but lacking that personal touch.
We have been looking into the origins of Garden House, a stone-built, two-storey house occupying a prominent position in the centre of the village between the Church and the former Town Farm. It has a large enclosed garden on the south side which fronts onto Towne Gate. The plot is approximately 70m long by 25m wide and is shown as a garden or orchard on the 1st Edition OS Map published in 1859.
I noticed this inscription today on the north facing side of the memorial to John Chicken and Ann Chicken of Lemington . It had not previously been recorded.
The main (east) face reads:
John Chicken of Lemington who died Oct 26th 1913 aged 63 years. Also of Ann Chicken wife of the above who died January 19th 1926 aged 73 years. "In God we trust".
The north side (adjacent to the path and shown in the above photograph) reads:
Lost at sea on the S.S. Cavalier
Dec. 13th 1891
Aged 44 years.
The Wrecksite website gives more information about the disaster.
On December 13th, 1891, the British cargo ship CAVALIER, built in 1878 by Doxford W. & Sons and owned at the time of her loss by Forster William, on voyage from Odessa to Falmouth with a cargo of grain, was last seen in heavy weather by the SS INDIAN PRINCE, abandoned and about 16 miles WSW from Bishop Rock. Since then, nothing was ever heard of her.
MISSING NEWCASTLE STEAMER
The "S.S. Cavalier" was a British iron screw steamship, official number 76,231, built in 1878 by William Doxford & Sons, at Sunderland. Her length was 279.1 ft., breadth 34.7 ft., and depth of hold 24.05 ft.
In October 1891 the "Cavalier" loaded in the Tyne a cargo of 2,538 tons of coal including bunkers for Savona, and before sailing, Captain Jennison finding the vessel with a list to port, ordered some of the crew to fill the two starboard boats with water to get her upright. One of these men, H. S. Broadbent, stated in evidence that as fast as they put water into these boats it ran out again through the seams which were leaking. The steam-steering gear which had been landed for repairs was not re-shipped; and the vessel sailed from the Tyne with a crew of 20 hands, under the command of Captain Jennison. She arrived safely at Savona, where the cargo was discharged, and she proceeded in water ballast to Odessa, where she arrived on the 15th November, and proceeded to load a cargo of wheat.
On the 21st November 1891, the "Cavalier" left Odessa with her crew of 21 hands. After taking on board 135 tons of bunker coals, she sailed from Gibraltar on 7th December, apparently in good condition, being upright and with the centre of the disc above the water.
Nothing more is known of the "Cavalier" until about 4 p.m. of the 13th December, when she was sighted by the s.s. "Indian Prince," about 16 miles W.S.W. of the Bishop's Rock, Scilly, apparently abandoned. The "Indian Prince" steamed round her, and remained near for about an hour, but as the sea was rough, and there was no sign of any life on board, she left the "Cavalier" and proceeded on her voyage. Since then nothing more has been seen of that vessel.
On the 4th January 1892, a body was washed on shore at St. Ives Bay, and on the following day two more bodies were found. One of the bodies was identified as that of the second mate of the "Cavalier." Some wreckage, apparently portions of a boat, were also found near the same place on the 4th, and on the 13th a bucket marked "Cavalier" was also found.
Photos below by George Clark showing views before and after redevelopment in the 1950s
(kindly supplied by his daughter, Isabel Tooze).
Compared to some of the others below that show the Square Yard and Jubilee Houses in a state of dereliction, just before demolition, Mushroom Row is still full of life. Ladies stand proudly at all four front doors and their men-folk walk the dirt road in front.
These are the first photos I have seen of the Square Yard, although I knew it was there from the old maps, memories and the census. There were 16 houses in the two terraces of the Square Yard and a lot of people in the village lived there over many years.
We really don't know when Heddon's St Andrew's Church was founded, but around 680 AD is the general consensus.
H.M. & J. Taylor in their monumental work 'Anglo-Saxon Architecture' put it in the period 600-800 AD).This fits with its dedication to St Andrew, which suggests that it may be contemporary with Hexham Abbey (674), Corbridge (676), Bywell St Andrew, and Newcastle St Andrew.
Bede, the Father of English History, has a couple of intriguing references in his 'History of the English Church and People', completed in 731.
In Bk.III, chapter 21, he records the baptism of one King Peada "by Bishop Finan .... at a well-known village belonging to the king (i.e. Oswy, king of Northumbria) known as 'Ad-murum', and, a little later King Sigbert was baptised "by Bishop Finan in the king's village of Ad-murum, so named because it stands close to the wall which the Roman's built to protect Britain, about twelve miles from the eastern coast". These incidents are both dated by scholars as 653 AD.
There can be little doubt that "the wall which the Roman's built ..." is Hadrian's Wall built about 122 AD, beside which Heddon village stands. Bede does not mention the name Heddon, but there is no record of this name (Hedun) in use earlier than 1175. 'Ad-murum' is translated 'At-Wall', not so different from 'On the Wall' (though in Latin our name is usually 'Hedon super murum').
Did Bede think that Hadrian's Wall began right on the coast (he twice tells of it running from sea to sea), and therefore assumed that the twelfth milecastle (at Heddon) was twelve miles from the coast?
On high ground, a splendid defensive position, Heddon as we know it would be an excellent site for 'the king's village'.
The site of Ad-murum has been located at various points from Newcastle in the east, to Walbottle and Heddon in the west. But the actual site of the King's village has never been found. The local historian, Cadwallader J. Bates, writing in 1885, argued strongly that Ad-murum with its royal villa was at Heddon.
If this is true, Heddon existed (probably under another name) in 653, and there the second Bishop of Lindisfarne, Finan, baptised the future kings of the Middle Angles and the East Saxons.
We usually date our church at 680, just after Hexham. If Ad-murum were identified with Heddon (and there is no evidence of it elsewhere) then almost certainly we could claim that we had a church here before 653.